The views expressed herein are as 4 December, 2017 and subject to change in the future. Individual portfolio management teams for GSAM may have views and opinions and/or make investment decisions that, in certain instances, may not always be consistent with the views and opinions expressed herein.

Views and opinions expressed are for informational purposes only and do not constitute a recommendation by GSAM to buy, sell, or hold any security, they should not be construed as investment advice.

All investments involve risk including possible loss of principal. Individual asset classes involve unique risks.  Bonds and fixed income investing are subject to interest rate risk.  When interest rates rise, bond prices fall.  Income from municipal securities is generally free from federal taxes and state taxes for residents of the issuing state. While the interest income is tax-free, capital gains, if any, will be subject to taxes. Income for some investors may be subject to the federal Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT).  Equity securities are more volatile than bonds and greater risks. International securities entail special risks such as currency, political, economic, and market risks. These risks are heightened in emerging markets securities which may be less liquid and more volatile.  Alternative strategies often engage in leverage and other investment practices that are speculative and involve a high degree of risk. Such practices may increase the volatility of performance and the risk of investment loss, including the entire amount that is invested.  Stock prices of technology and technology-related companies in particular may be especially volatile. The use quantitative models to execute an investment strategy may fail to produce the intended result. These risks should be fully evaluated before making an investment decision.

THIS MATERIAL DOES NOT CONSTITUTE AN OFFER OR SOLICITATION IN ANY JURISDICTION WHERE OR TO ANY PERSON TO W HOM IT WOULD BE UNAUTHORIZED OR UNLAWFUL TO DO SO.

THIS MATERIAL IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND IS PROVIDED SOLELY ON THE BASIS THAT IT WILL NOT CONSTITUTE INVESTMENT OR OTHER ADVICE OR A RECOMMENDATION RELATING TO ANY PERSON’S OR PLAN’S INVESTMENT OR OTHER DECISIONS, AND GOLDMAN SACHS IS NOT A FIDUCIARY OR ADVISOR WITH RESPECT TO ANY PERSON OR PLAN BY REASON OF PROVIDING THE MATERIAL OR CONTENT HEREIN INCLUDING UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 OR DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS. PLAN SPONSORS AND OTHER FIDUCIARIES SHOULD CONSIDER THEIR OWN CIRCUMSTANCES IN ASSESSING ANY POTENTIAL COURSE OF ACTION.

This information discusses general market activity, industry or sector trends, or other broad-based economic, market or political conditions and should not be construed as research or investment advice. This material has been prepared by GSAM and is not financial research nor a product of Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research (GIR). It was not prepared in compliance with applicable provisions of law designed to promote the independence of financial analysis and is not subject to a prohibition on trading following the distribution of financial research. The views and opinions expressed may differ from those of Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research or other departments or divisions of Goldman Sachs and its affiliates. Investors are urged to consult with their financial advisors before buying or selling any securities. This information may not be current and GSAM has no obligation to provide any updates or changes.

Although certain information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, we do not guarantee its accuracy, completeness or fairness. We have relied upon and assumed without independent verification, the accuracy and completeness of all information available from public sources. Past performance does not guarantee future results, which may vary. The value of investments and the income derived from investments will fluctuate and can go down as well as up. A loss of principal may occur.

Economic and market forecasts presented herein reflect a series of assumptions and judgments as of the date of this presentation and are subject to change without notice. These forecasts are subject to high levels of uncertainty that may affect actual outcomes.

Goldman Sachs does not provide legal, tax or accounting advice to its clients. All investors are strongly urged to consult with their legal, tax, or accounting advisors regarding any potential transactions or investments. There is no assurance that the tax status or treatment of a proposed transaction or investment will continue in the future. Tax treatment or status may be changed by law or government action in the future or on a retroactive basis.

United Kingdom and European Economic Area (EEA): This material is a financial promotion and has been approved by Goldman Sachs Asset Management International, which is authorized and regulated in the United Kingdom by the Financial Conduct Authority. Switzerland: This document is provided to you by Goldman Sachs Bank AG, Zürich. Any future contractual relationships will be entered into with affiliates of Goldman Sachs Bank AG, which are domiciled outside of Switzerland. We would like to remind you that foreign (Non-Swiss) legal and regulatory systems may not provide the same level of protection in relation to client confidentiality and data protection as offered to you by Swiss law.

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Australia: This material is distributed in Australia and New Zealand by Goldman Sachs Asset Management Australia Pty Ltd ABN 41 006 099 681, AFSL 228948 (’GSAMA’) and is intended for viewing only by wholesale clients in Australia for the purposes of section 761G of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) and to clients who either fall within any or all of the categories of investors set out in section 3(2) or sub-section 5(2CC) of the Securities Act 1978, fall within the definition of a wholesale client for the purposes of the Financial Service Providers (Registration and Dispute Resolution) Act 2008 (FSPA) and the Financial Advisers Act 2008 (FAA),and fall within the definition of a wholesale investor under one of clause 37, clause 39 or clause 40 of Schedule 1 of the Financial Markets Conduct Act 2013 (FMCA) of New Zealand (collectively, a “NZ Wholesale Investor”). GSAMA is not a registered financial service provider under the FSPA. GSAMA does not have a place of business in New Zealand. In New Zealand, this document, and any access to it, is intended only for a person who has first satisfied GSAMA that the person is a NZ Wholesale Investor. This document is intended for viewing only by the intended recipient. This document may not be reproduced or distributed to any person in whole or in part without the prior written consent of GSAMA. This information discusses general market activity, industry or sector trends, or other broad based economic, market or political conditions and should not be construed as research or investment advice. The material provided herein is for informational purposes only. This presentation does not constitute an offer or solicitation to any person in any jurisdiction in which such offer or solicitation is not authorized or to any person to whom it would be unlawful to make such offer or Solicitation.

Canada: This material has been communicated in Canada by Goldman Sachs Asset Management, L.P. (GSAM LP). GSAM LP is registered as a portfolio manager under securities legislation in certain provinces of Canada, as a non-resident commodity trading manager under the commodity futures legislation of Ontario and as a portfolio manager under the derivatives legislation of Quebec. In other provinces, GSAM LP conducts its activities under exemptions from the adviser registration requirements. In certain provinces, GSAM LP is not registered to provide investment advisory or portfolio management services in respect of exchange-traded futures or options contracts and is not offering to provide such investment advisory or portfolio management services in such provinces by delivery of this material.

Japan: This material has been issued or approved in Japan for the use of professional investors defined in Article 2 paragraph (31) of the Financial Instruments and Exchange Law by Goldman Sachs Asset Management Co., Ltd.

© 2017 Goldman Sachs. All rights reserved. Date of first use: December 6, 2017.